Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

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SKB
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Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

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Image
^ RAF Harrier GR9

Introduction
The Harrier, informally referred to as the Harrier Jump Jet, is a family of military jet aircraft capable of vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) operations. The Harrier was developed in Britain to operate from ad-hoc facilities, such as car parks or forest clearings, avoiding the need for large air bases vulnerable to tactical nuclear weapons. Later, the design was adapted for use from aircraft carriers. The Harrier is also distinct as being of modern era, yet subsonic, contrasting with most of the major Western post–World War II–era fighter aircraft, which tend to be supersonic aircraft.

There are two generations of four main variants of the Harrier family:

Hawker Siddeley Harrier
British Aerospace Sea Harrier (Sea Harrier thread: http://ukdefenceforum.net/viewtopic.php?f=41&t=73 )
Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II
BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II

The Hawker Siddeley Harrier is the first generation-version and is also known as the AV-8A Harrier. The Sea Harrier is a naval strike/air defence fighter. The AV-8B and BAE Harrier II are the US and British variants respectively of the second generation Harrier aircraft.

Development
Following an approach by the Bristol Engine Company in 1957 that they were planning a directed thrust engine, Hawker Aircraft came up with a design for an aeroplane that could meet the NATO specification for a "Light Tactical Support Fighter". There was no financial support for the development from HM Treasury, but aid was found through NATO's Mutual Weapon Development Project (MWDP).

The Hawker P.1127 was ordered as a prototype and flew in 1960. NATO developed a specification (NBMR-3) for a VTOL aircraft, but one that was expected to have the performance of an aircraft like the F-4 Phantom II. Hawker drafted a supersonic version of the P.1127, the P.1150, and also the Hawker P.1154, which would meet NBMR-3. The latter was a winner of the NATO competition and development continued, initially for both services, until cancelled, by the new government on cost grounds, at the point of prototype construction in 1965.

Work on the P.1127 continued with nine evaluation aircraft, the Hawker Siddeley Kestrel, ordered. These started flying in 1964 and were assessed by the "Tri-partite Evaluation Squadron", which consisted of British, US and German pilots. With the cancellation of the P.1154, the RAF ordered a modified P.1127/Kestrel as the Harrier GR.1 in 1966.

First-generation Harriers
The Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR.1/GR.3 and the AV-8A Harrier were the first generation of the Harrier series, the first operational close-support and reconnaissance attack aircraft with vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) capabilities. These were developed directly from the Hawker P.1127 prototype and the Kestrel evaluation aircraft.

The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval V/STOL jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft, a development of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. The first version entered service with the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm in April 1980 as the Sea Harrier FRS.1, and was informally known as the Shar. The upgraded Sea Harrier FA2 entered service in 1993. It was withdrawn from Royal Navy service in March 2006. (Sea Harrier thread: http://ukdefenceforum.net/viewtopic.php?f=41&t=73)

Second-generation Harriers
The Harrier was extensively redeveloped by McDonnell Douglas and British Aerospace (now parts of Boeing and BAE Systems respectively), leading to the Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II. This is a family of second-generation V/STOL jet multi-role aircraft, including the British Aerospace-built Harrier GR5/GR7/GR9, which entered service in the mid-1980's. The AV-8B is primarily used for light attack or multi-role tasks, typically operated from small aircraft carriers. Versions are used by several NATO countries, including Spain, Italy, and the United States. The BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II is a modified version of the AV-8B Harrier II that was used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Royal Navy until 2010.

Between 1969 and 2003, 824 Harrier variants were delivered. While the manufacture of new Harriers concluded in 1997, the last remanufactured aircraft (Harrier II Plus configuration) was delivered in December 2003 which ended the Harrier production line.

Operation
The Harrier Jump Jet, capable of taking off vertically, can only do so at less than its maximum loaded weight. In most cases, a short take off is performed, using forward speed to achieve aerodynamic lift, which uses fuel more economically than a vertical take off. On aircraft carriers, a ski-jump ramp is employed at the bow of the carrier to assist the aircraft in becoming airborne.

Landings are typically performed very differently. Although a conventional landing is possible, the range of speeds at which this can be done is narrow due to relatively vulnerable outrigger undercarriage. Operationally, a near-vertical landing with some forward speed is preferred.

Replacement
The F-35B STOVL variant of the F-35 Lightning II (formerly the Joint Strike Fighter) is intended to replace the AV-8B Harrier II. The RAF and Royal Navy are scheduled to introduce the F-35B around 2020.

In 2010, it was announced that the RAF and RN would retire their remaining Harriers by 2011, but in December 2010 the RAF's Harrier GR9's made their last operational flights.

In June 2011, the MoD denied press reports that the aircraft are to be sold to the US Marine Corps for spares to support their AV-8B fleet, but options for disposal are still being considered. However, at the end of November 2011, Defence Minister Peter Luff announced the sale of the final 72 Harriers to the US Marine Corps. As many as possible of the 72 Harrier GR9's will be converted to match AV-8B Night Attack configuration to augment the total AV-8B end strength (this will allow the USMC to retire some high-flight-hour F/A-18D aircraft), while the remaining aircraft will be used as spare parts sources for the airworthy fleet.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by SKB »

Harrier documentary

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by GastonGlocker »

No front landing gear, no problem:


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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

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-<>-<>-<>-
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Forum signature removed. - Miss Armchair Soldier

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by downsizer »

Bet you didn't know that bell tower is listed.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

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Forum signature removed. - Miss Armchair Soldier

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

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http://www.urbanghostsmedia.com/2014/05 ... -boneyard/

Some images of our harrier fleet in an American bone yard.
@LandSharkUK

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by arfah »

-<>-<>-<>-
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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by 617 »

shark bait wrote:http://www.urbanghostsmedia.com/2014/05 ... -boneyard/

Some images of our harrier fleet in an American bone yard.
Can the public have tours of that boneyard?

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by ArmChairCivvy »

If I knew how, I would check the serials of the two USMC Harriers damaged beyond repair in the Camp Bastion attack (my bet being that they are miraculously flying again), RE
"
... the extent of losses suffered in Afghanistan is higher than the 7 percent and could be a big deal for the U.S. Marine Corps
that has to carefully ration the employment of the Harriers if it wants to keep the AV-8B+ in service beyond 2030"
Ever-lasting truths: Multi-year budgets/ planning by necessity have to address the painful questions; more often than not the Either-Or prevails over Both-And.
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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by marktigger »

Shouldn't McDonnell-Douglas be credited in the opening as they developed the AV8B which is what the GR5 was based on.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by ArmChairCivvy »

Definitely, because it is from that point on that the interchangeability of parts derives
... otherwise there would not have been a deal "for spares"
Ever-lasting truths: Multi-year budgets/ planning by necessity have to address the painful questions; more often than not the Either-Or prevails over Both-And.
If everyone is thinking the same, then someone is not thinking (attributed to Patton)

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by indeid »

Old thread but seems appropriate, saw today that sadly John Farley, the famous Harrier test pilot, has died. A few colleagues had been to his lectures and had nothing but praise for an fantastic man to whom the success of the Harrier owed much to.

The 'Farley Take off' must have been an amazing sight.

Hover Safe.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by SKB »


(Forces TV) 9th May 2018
The Hawker Harrier was one of Britain's greatest innovations - a jump jet attack aircraft that could land without a runway and hover like a helicopter. In 1969, it completed a trans-Atlantic flight that made world headlines. Now that same aircraft is being restored, and the hunt is on for a museum in which to house it.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by SKB »


(Forces TV) 28th August 2018
Famous for its ability to do both conventional and vertical take offs and landings, the Harrier (or ‘Jump Jet’) was a versatile, single-seat aircraft.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by SKB »

Today is the 50th anniversary of the first Hawker Siddeley Harriers entering RAF service, with No.1 Squadron at RAF Wittering.

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Re: Hawker Siddeley/BAE Harrier (1964-2010) (RAF)

Post by cky7 »

Couldn’t believe my luck this week. I do removals and though I’ve been on lockdown for months I agreed to take some stuff down to a relative’s house in Devon from storage near mine as they were desperate and there was nothing too heavy for me to carry by myself. Anyway I get there and am sent down a track that went for miles along the edge of RNAS Culdrose. Was literally a dirt track and was in a Luton van so was driving very slowly and enjoying watching marlins coming in and out as the track ran parallel to the runway for much of it. After literallly 4 miles I finally reached the house which was totally on its own. I pull up and reverse onto the drive and see that the base fence is right at the end of the drive and sat there are three Sea harriers. One appeared complete, the other two had bits missing. One I couldn’t see much of, but the second had the radar removed. I was still able to stand right on the edge of the fence only a few metres from these fantastic aircraft I’d never thought I’d see again. It made my day. The relative and owner of the house hated having the air base there and were at a total loss to my utter excitement and envy of their view!!

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