Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

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SKB
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Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by SKB »

Image
^ HMS Cornwall (F99), a Batch III Type 22 Frigate

Introduction

The Type 22 Broadsword class was a class of frigate built for the British Royal Navy. Fourteen of the class were built in total, with production divided into three batches. HMS Cornwall was the last Royal Navy Type 22 frigate, retired from service on 30 June 2011.

Seven ships of the earlier batches have been sold to Brazil, Romania and Chile. Six of these remain in service and one was sold for scrap. Of the decommissioned vessels, two were sunk as targets, and five sold for scrap.


Type 22 Names

It was originally envisaged that all Type 22's would have names beginning with 'B' (Broadsword, etc.), following the 'A' names used for Type 21s (Amazon, etc.). This changed after the Falklands War when two replacement ships were ordered for the destroyers sunk (Sheffield and Coventry) and were named to commemorate them. Another vessel ordered earlier but not yet started, which was to be named "Bloodhound" was renamed "London".

The alphabetical progression was re-established with the Batch 3 ships (Cornwall, etc.) before being temporarily abandoned with the Type 23 class, named after Dukedoms (Norfolk, Lancaster, etc.). The Royal Navy's latest escort class (the Type 45 or Daring class) have re-introduced the alphabetical progression, using destroyer names from the 1930s and 1950s.

The names selected for the four Batch 3 ships were a mixture: two, Cornwall and Cumberland, revived County-class names previously carried both by First World War-era armoured cruisers, and by Second World War-era heavy cruisers. The other Batch 3's, Chatham and Campbeltown, were Town names, the former reviving a 1911 light cruiser name, and the latter commemorating the most famous of the US destroyers transferred to the Royal Navy in 1940; the name for HMS Chatham was selected as a salute to the Medway town, where the naval dockyard, established in 1570, had closed in 1984.


Design

The Type 22 was designed to be a specialist anti-submarine warfare vessel as part of the Royal Navy's contribution to NATO. During Royal Navy service they evolved into general purpose frigate with weapons for use against other surface ships, aircraft and submarines. They were built in three batches giving rise to three sub-classes, the first Broadsword of four ships, the second Boxer of six ships and the third and final, Cornwall of four ships.

The four Broadswords (which included two Falklands War veterans) were sold to Brazil in the mid 1990s. Romania has acquired and modernised two of the Batch 2 ships, while a third was purchased by Chile.

During their Royal Navy service the ships had enhanced command, control and co-ordination facilities that resulted in their often being used as flagships on deployments.


Evolution

Following the cancellation of the aircraft carrier programme CVA-01 in 1966, the Royal Navy undertook a reappraisal of the surface fleet, and concluded that the following five new ship types were required:

* A cruiser-type ship to operate large ASW helicopters (this requirement eventually led to the Invincible class carriers);
* An air defence destroyer smaller and cheaper than the 'County' class (this resulted in the Type 42 programme);
* A missile-armed frigate as an eventual successor to the Type 12 Leander class (this requirement led to the Type 22);
* A cheap patrol frigate (this requirement led to the Type 21); and
* A dual-role MCMV successor to the 'Ton' class (this resulted in the 'Hunt' class)

Of these, the air defence destroyer appeared to had been given highest priority, the imperative being to get Sea Dart to sea in numbers to replace the air defence capability which would be lost with the retirement of the carrier fleet.

Visually, the Type 12 lineage in the Type 22 design is less than obvious, though there are said to be similarities in the underwater hull form. Due to the workload of the Admiralty design department in the 1960s, a private design (Type 21) was purchased as an interim stop-gap whilst the Type 22 was under development. The design process, already hampered by the priority given to the Type 21 and the urgently needed Type 42, was further protracted by attempts to produce a common Anglo-Dutch design. The first Type 22 order was placed in 1972 with Yarrow Shipbuilders; Yarrow undertook much of the detailed design work whilst overall responsibility remained with the Ship Department at Bath.

The length of the first four Type 22s was dictated by the dimensions of the undercover Frigate Refit Complex at Devonport Dockyard. The ships would be powered by a combination of Olympus and Tyne gas turbines in a COGOG (COmbined Gas turbine Or Gas turbine) arrangement. Machinery spaces were sited as far aft as possible to minimise shaft lengths. The after configuration was dictated by the requirement for a large hangar and a full-width flight deck.

Weapons fit was determined by the primary ASW role combined with a perceived need for a general purpose capability. The principal ASW weapons systems were the ship's Lynx helicopter and triple torpedo tubes (STWS), with 2087 towed array sonar a key part of the sensors fit. Air defence was provided in the form of two 'six-pack' launchers for the Seawolf (GWS 25) point-defence missile system. Surface warfare requirements were met by the provision of four Exocet SSM launchers, the standard RN fit at that time. A pair of L/60 Bofors were fitted in the first batch for patrol and junk busting on summer Indian Ocean deployments, but proved expedient in the Falkland were T22 captains considered they interfered with concentrating on Seawolf setup.

The Broadsword design was unique to the Royal Navy in lacking a main gun armament. Although some of the Leander class frigates had lost their main gun armament during upgrades, Broadsword was the first to be designed from the beginning without a large calibre gun turret. This changed with the introduction of the Batch III ships.

Ordering of Type 22s proceeded slowly, in part because of the comparatively high unit cost of the ships. The unit cost of the last Type 12Ms had been about £10m; Type 21s cost around £20m each; when the first Type 22s were ordered, unit costs were estimated at £30m though, by the time that the first ship (HMS Broadsword) commissioned in 1979, inflation had driven this figure up to £68m, which was far higher than the cost of the contemporary Type 42s (HMS Glasgow, also commissioned in 1979, cost £40m).

After the first four ("Batch I") ships, the design was "stretched", with the Frigate Refit Complex suitably enlarged. Visually, and in addition to the increase in length, the biggest difference was the sharply raked stem, usually indicative of bow sonar (though none of the Batch II ships was thus fitted). An important addition to the Batch II group was a new Computer Assisted Command System (CACS-1), replacing the CAAIS fitted to the Batch I ships.This could track up to 500 targets, including those detected by the ships passive towed array and ESM. The most significant change in this group of six Type 22 frigates is much more sophisticated electronic warfare systems, particularly the outboard system for the intercept of Soviet naval and submarine communications. This very sophisticated and specialised versions of the Type 22 were specifically approved by Prime Minister James Callaghan. The larger hull also improved sea keeping, but never achieved the expected quietness with towed arrays, according to Captain Doug Littlejohns of the Type 22, HMS London (due to failure to raft mount the diesel generators) in operations in the UK-Iceland- Greenland gap were they were expected to play an important role in preventing and monitoring the passage of Soviet naval units a critical stage of the Cold War. A revised machinery installation was adopted from HMS Brave onwards, with Spey turbines replacing the previous Olympus. The future machinery arrangement would be COGAG (Combined Gas turbine And Gas turbine). By 1982, the quoted unit cost of a Type 22 had risen to £127m.

This might have been the end of the Type 22 programme had it not been for the Falklands War (1982), in which the two ships of the class present (Broadsword and Brilliant) acquitted themselves well. Replacements for ships lost in the South Atlantic were all of this class.


Batch 3

The last four ships of the class (the Batch III ships Cornwall, Cumberland, Campbeltown and Chatham) were of a greatly improved design. Reflecting lessons learned in the Falklands, the weapons fit was changed, becoming more optimised to a general warfare role; the only major weapon system shared with the previous vessels was the pair of six-cell Seawolf launchers. The ships were fitted with the 4.5" (114m) gun, primarily for NGS (Naval Gunfire Support for land forces). Exocet was replaced by the superior Harpoon with eight GWS 60 missile launchers fitted laterally abaft the bridge, and each ship would carry a Goalkeeper CIWS (Close-In Weapon System).

In their final form, the Type 22s were the largest frigates ever built for the Royal Navy – the follow-on Type 23 class would be appreciably smaller ships. Reflecting this, Type 22s were often deployed as flagships for NATO Task Groups.


Batch I ('Broadsword Class')
1. HMS Broadsword (F88) Commissioned 1979. (Later sold to Brazil, recommissioned in 1995 as 'Greenhalgh' (F46))
2. HMS Battleaxe (F89) Commissioned 1980. (Later sold to Brazil, recommissioned in 1997 as 'Rademaker' (F49))
3. HMS Brilliant (F90) Commissioned 1981. (Later sold to Brazil, recommissioned in 1996 as 'Dodsworth' (F47). Scrapped 2012)
4. HMS Brazen (F91) Commissioned 1982. (Later sold to Brazil, recommissioned in 1996 as 'Bosísio' (F48)). Sunk for target practice July 2017.

Batch II ('Boxer Class')
5. HMS Boxer (F92) Commissioned 1983. Decommissioned 1999. Sunk for target practice 2004
6. HMS Beaver (F93) Commissioned 1984. Decommissioned 1999. Scrapped 2001
7. HMS Brave (F94) Commissioned 1986. Decommissioned 1999. Sunk for target practice 2004
8. HMS London (ex-'Bloodhound') (F95) Commissioned 1987. (Later sold to Romania, recommissioned in 2005 as 'Regina Maria' (F222))
9. HMS Sheffield (ex-'Bruiser') (F96) Commissioned 1988. (Later sold to Chile, recommissioned in 2003 as 'Almirante Williams' (FF-19))
10. HMS Coventry (ex-'Boadicea') (F98) Commissioned 1988. (Later sold to Romania, recommissioned in 2004 as 'Regele Ferdinand' (F221))

Batch III ('Cornwall Class')
11. HMS Cornwall (F99) Commissioned 1988. Decommissioned 2011. Scrapped 2013
12. HMS Cumberland (F85) Commissioned 1989. Decommissioned 2011. Scrapped 2013
13. HMS Campbeltown (F86) Commissioned 1989. Decommissioned 2011. Scrapped 2013
14. HMS Chatham (F87) Commissioned 1990. Decommissioned 2011. Scrapped 2013


Displacement:
Batch 1: 4,400 tonnes, standard
Batch 2: 4,800 tonnes, standard
Batch 3: 5,300 tonnes, standard
Length:
Batch 1: 131.2 m (430 feet)
Batch 2: 146.5 m (480 feet)
Batch 3: 148.1 m (486 feet)
Beam:
14.8 m (48 feet)
Draft:
Batch 1: 6.1 m (20 feet)
Batch 2 & 3: 6.4 m (21 feet)
Propulsion:
Batch 1 & 2: 2-shaft COGOG
2 Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B high-speed gas turbines (54,000 shp / 40 MW)
2 Rolls-Royce Tyne RM1C cruise gas turbines (9,700 shp / 7.2 MW)
Batch 3 & Brave: 2-shaft COGAG
2 Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A boost gas turbines (37,540 shp / 28 MW)
2 Rolls-Royce Tyne RM3C cruise gas turbines (9,700 shp/ 7.2 MW)
Speed:
30 knots (56 km/h (full))
18 knots (33.3 km/h (cruise))
Crew Complement:
Batch 1: 222
Batch 2: 273
Batch 3: 250
Electronic warfare and decoys:
NATO Seagnat Decoy Launchers
Armament:
RN Batch 3 were armed with;
2x Sea Wolf anti-air missile launchers
2× Quad Harpoon missile launchers
2× triple Magazine launched anti-submarine torpedo tubes
1× 4.5-inch (114 mm) Mk.8 gun
2× 20 mm GAM-BO1 guns
1× Goalkeeper CIWS
L7A2 GPMGs
M134 Minigun
Aircraft carried:
1–2× Lynx Mk.8, armed with;
2× machine guns, and
4× Sea Skua anti-ships missiles, or
2× Sting Ray anti-submarine torpedoes
Aviation facilities:
Flight deck and hangar

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SKB
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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by SKB »

HMS Broadsword tribute video:

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by marktigger »

the brazilians are running down the batch I's and already I've seen calls for one to be brought back to be a museum........another HMS Plymouth in the making?

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by arfah »

-<>-<>-<>-
-<>-<>-<>-

Forum signature removed. - Miss Armchair Soldier

rec
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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by rec »

The Batch 3s were very good ships, and its a real shame that all the Type 22s were decommisisoned early, a sign of UK military decline.

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by arfah »

-<>-<>-<>-
-<>-<>-<>-

Forum signature removed. - Miss Armchair Soldier

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by Foxbat »

arfah wrote:The recycling of HMS Cornwall. pdf


https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/s ... rnwall.pdf

(I robbed this off the arrse forum)
Very interesting but also very sad. No ship lasts forever but it always seems very sad to see them being gutted like this. Though at least she wasn't sent to Turkey to be torn apart.


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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by ArmChairCivvy »

Every time I see a piccie of them, makes me sad and mad: What a waste, dumping the best batch!

Partial manning, in a global surveillance role should have been the answer. Not getting rid of them just because in their full functioning mode the manning level was high. More functions - more crew; shhimples?
Ever-lasting truths: Multi-year budgets/ planning by necessity have to address the painful questions; more often than not the Either-Or prevails over Both-And.
If everyone is thinking the same, then someone is not thinking (attributed to Patton)


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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by chinook88 »

In the video you can see 3 missiles. 1 Penguin and 2 Exocet (fired from frigates "F Rademaker F49" and a Niterói).

Image
Image
Image

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by ArmChairCivvy »

chinook88 wrote:Penguin
Still in service! And why not
Ever-lasting truths: Multi-year budgets/ planning by necessity have to address the painful questions; more often than not the Either-Or prevails over Both-And.
If everyone is thinking the same, then someone is not thinking (attributed to Patton)

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by abc123 »

ArmChairCivvy wrote:Every time I see a piccie of them, makes me sad and mad: What a waste, dumping the best batch!

Partial manning, in a global surveillance role should have been the answer. Not getting rid of them just because in their full functioning mode the manning level was high. More functions - more crew; shhimples?

I don't know would you agree with me, but this Brazil's sinking of Brazen, doesen't seem as too smart to me. Yes, she was old, but they have even older Niteroi class in service, and with 2 Type 22 in service, it would be better to keep her for canibalisation...
Fortune favors brave sir, said Carrot cheerfully.
What's her position about heavily armed, well prepared and overmanned armies?
Oh, noone's ever heard of Fortune favoring them, sir.
According to General Tacticus, it's because they favor themselves…

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by ArmChairCivvy »

abc123 wrote:would be better to keep her for canibalisation..
Probably anything useful was taken out; it is really the hull and compartmentalisation that is under test (or, to be more exact, is the warhead's destructive power up to the job)
Ever-lasting truths: Multi-year budgets/ planning by necessity have to address the painful questions; more often than not the Either-Or prevails over Both-And.
If everyone is thinking the same, then someone is not thinking (attributed to Patton)

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by Rambo »

Interesting to see the original Sea Wolf GWS-25 launcher on F Rademaker'. I didn't realise these were still produced and wonder if the ship is ever armed with any seeing as this is old tech coming to the end of it's life.

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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by Brasil »

Deactivation of the frigate Greenhalgh - F46



Image

Alexandre Galante
August 3, 2021

The frigate Greenhalgh – F46, from the Brazilian Navy, will be discharged from active service soon. The disarmament show ceremony should take place on August 10th.

The frigate Greenhalgh – F46, ex-HMS Broadsword – F88, is the fourth ship to bear this name in the Brazilian Navy, in honor of the Navy Guard João Guilherme Greenhalgh, killed in the Naval Battle of Riachuelo. It was built by the Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd. shipyard in Scotstoun, Glasgow, Scotland.

The frigate HMS Broadsword was the leader of the Type 22 Batch 1 class of four Royal Navy ships and participated in combats in the Falklands War, acting as a “goalkeeper” in protecting the carriers with its Seawolf missile system, against the threat of Argentine Exocet missiles.

The contract for the purchase of Greenhalgh, its three sisters and three River-class sweepers, worth approximately $170 million (£100 million) was signed between the Brazilian Government and the British Ministry of Defense on November 18, 1994, with the transfers taking place as the Royal Navy was discharged.

F Greenhalgh (F46) - former HMS Broadsword (F88)
F Dodsworth (F47) – former HMS Brilliant (F90) (discharge from active duty in 2003)
F Bosísio (F48) - former HMS Brazen (F91) (discharge from active service in 2015)
F Rademaker (F49) – former HMS Battleaxe (F89)

Greenhalgh was incorporated into the Brazilian Navy on June 30, 1995, in a ceremony held in Plymouth, England. On that occasion, Captain João Carlos Alves da Silva assumed command.


https://www.naval.com.br/blog/2021/08/0 ... halgh-f46/


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Re: Type 22 Frigate (Broadsword (I), Boxer (II) and Cornwall (III) Classes) (1979-2011) (RN)

Post by Brasil »

Image

AGENDA No. 01-3/2021

Subject: “Greenhalgh” Frigate Disarmament Exhibition

In compliance with the provisions of Ordinance No. 224, of August 4, 2021, of the Commander of the Navy, the Disarmament Exhibition of the Frigate "Greenhalgh" is held on this date, the fourth Ship in the service of the Brazilian Navy to carry this name, which refers to the Marine Guard JOÃO GUILHERME GREENHALGH, heroic character of our history, whose notoriety occurred in the Naval Battle of Riachuelo.

The frigate “Greenhalgh”, ex-HMS Broadsword – F-88, the first ship of the Class in Brazil, was built by the Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd. shipyard, in Scotstoun, Glasgow, Scotland. The contract to purchase "Greenhalgh", its three sisters and three "River" Class Sweepers, was signed on November 18, 1994, with transfers taking place as they left active service with the Royal Navy.

It was incorporated into the Brazilian Navy on June 30, 1995, in a ceremony held in Plymouth, England, giving greater vigor to the Surface Force and expanding the capacity of our Squadron.

The ship's configuration included sophisticated systems at the time, of which the following stood out:

Exocet missile launchers; Sea Wolf point defense anti-aircraft missiles, with its control system (GWS 25); combined surveillance radars (air and surface) 967-968; 2050 hull sonar; centralized combat information processing (CAAIS) and automatic data linking between ships.

In its little more than twenty-six years of incorporation into the Brazilian Navy, “LOBO GUERREIRO” achieved expressive marks, totaling 1,234 days at sea and 247,119.62 nautical miles sailed, and having participated in numerous commissions, including: PARADEX, TROPICALEX /APRESTEX, ADEREX, VENBRAS 2000, ASPIRANTEX, MISSEX, UNITAS, POIT and ADEFASEX.

The Frigate “Greenhalgh” visited and represented Brazil in several ports in the country and abroad, such as: Vitória-ES, Santos-SP, Recife-PE, Itajaí-SC, Salvador-BA, Ilhéus-BA, Cabedelo-PB , Natal-RN, Maceió-AL, Montevideo-URU, Norfolk-USA, San Juan-USA and Baltimore-USA.

Another important milestone of the Frigate "Greenhalgh" was the participation of the Commission in support of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, in the period between August 6 and 18, 2016, contributing to the security of the Games, raising the name of the Brazil before the world.

At the end of the Ceremonial to the Flag, an act that ends its operative life, we exalt all the Sailors, true anonymous heroes, who helped to forge the soul of this Ship with Research Spirit of Sacrifice, Abnegation, Sacred Fire, Patriotism and, above all, Camaraderie. Its victorious success will remain alive in the memories of its Crew Members.

To “WARRIOR WOLF”, BRAVO ZULU!
Strong Navy!
Sovereign Brazil!

https://www.defesaaereanaval.com.br/nav ... greenhalgh

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